#EndSARS: Nigerians protest against police brutalit Nigeria’s federal Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) is widely accused of unlawful arrests, torture and even murder.

Protesters call for the scrapping of the controversial police unit Hundreds of people have protested against alleged police brutality for a second day across Nigeria after a video of a man allegedly being killed by police went viral.

Anger has been brewing on social media after the video of the alleged killing in the southern Delta state, which authorities denied was real.

Nigeria special police unit reined in after abuse allegations The man who filmed the video was arrested, provoking even more anger.

Hundreds of youths gathered in Ikeja in central Lagos on Friday, holding banners reading “respect for human rights” and “a more equal society”.

In Abuja, dozens of protesters also gathered and police forces used tear gas to disperse protesters, according to witness accounts.

“Our members were close to 200 in the protest. We were teargassed,” human rights activist Deji Adeyanju told the AFP news agency.

“It’s just sad that they are clamping down on peaceful civil protest.”

Protester Anita Izato posted on Twitter: “They poured tear gas on each and every one of us, it’s so hot I had to put water on my face. This is what Nigeria has turned into.”

‘We all risk being tortured’ The protest movement was initially aimed at the federal Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS), widely accused of unlawful arrests, torture and even murder, but has since broadened to include all police forces.

While the SARS unit was suspended on Sunday, groups such as Amnesty International said the government had not gone far enough, pointing to previous unsuccessful attempts to ban the force.

The #EndSARS hashtag is thought to have been first used in 2018.

There were more than 2.4 million tweets with #EndSARS on Friday. Several celebrities also expressed support for the movement.

Sandra Ezekwesili, a Nigerian broadcast journalist, also joined the discussion and urged people to keep protesting:

Amnesty International also voiced its opinion:

Florence Ifeoluwa Otedola, also known as DJ Cuppy, stood behind the movement:

” The movement is growing,” 29-year-old Chinoso Esengba, a doctor participating in Friday’s protest, said.

“This problem affects us all. We all risk being tortured, arrested, extorted for no good reason.”

That Time Albert Einstein Invented a New Refrigerator

The name Albert Einstein has become a byword for genius – and rightly so. The German physicist’s theories of Special and General Relativity fundamentally reshaped our understanding of the uni-verse to a degree not seen since Isaac Newton, while his groundbreaking 1905 papers on Brownian Motion and the Photoelectric Effect laid the groundwork for modern atomic and quantum theory. Yet despite his status as a giant of theoretical physics, one thing Einstein is not commonly associat-ed with is hands-on mechanical innovation. It may thus come as a surprise that Einstein actually held over 50 patents for practical devices ranging from hearing aids, cameras, gyrocompasses, and even a stylish vest with an adjustable elasticated waistband. But the vast majority of Einstein’s pa-tents covered an altogether unexpected device: a new kind of refrigerator.

The origins of Einstein’s long-forgotten foray into practical mechanics lay in a tragic accident. In 1926 Einstein read a newspaper article about a Berlin family who had died in their sleep when their refrigerator sprung a leak. Refrigerators at the time ran on a variety of refrigerants such as Ammonia, Methyl Chloride, and Sulfur Dioxide, all of which were highly toxic or even explosive. Moved by this tragedy, Einstein set out to design a safer refrigeration system. To aid him in this en-deavour he enlisted the help of former student Leo Szilard, an acclaimed Hungarian physicist who in 1933 would invent the concept of the nuclear chain reaction. They proved to be an ideal team, Szilard having written his doctoral dissertation on the thermodynamics of fluctuating systems and Einstein having worked for many years as a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern, granting him intimate knowledge of the patent system. However, the presence of Einstein’s name on the patent applications raised more than a few eyebrows, with several patent clerks writing back to confirm that this was indeed the Einstein.

In total Einstein and Szilard were granted 45 patents covering three different refrigerator designs. Their first design was an improvement on the vapour-absorption cycle invented in 1922 by Swe-dish engineers Baltzar von Platen and Carl Munters. Unlike regular vapour-compression refrigera-tors which use a mechanical compressor, Einstein and Szilard’s system had no moving parts and was completely sealed, eliminating the need rotary seals and other components that could potential-ly leak. The refrigerator used a complicated circuit to circulate a combination of water, ammonia, and butane refrigerants and was powered from the outside by a gas flame, much like the propane refrigerators used by many campers and RV-ers.

But while this is the best-known of the Einstein-Szilard refrigerators, it is the pair’s second design which most excited Einstein. Dubbed the Volks-Kühlschrank or “people’s refrigerator”, this was an ingeniously simple device that could be powered by water pressure from an ordinary household tap. Water running through a Venturi generated a mild vacuum, which caused methanol stored in a tank to evaporate. This vapour then absorbed heat from the food compartment before dissolving in the outgoing water, carrying the heat with it. While this process eventually consumed the Methanol, requiring it to be regularly topped up, Einstein reasoned that Methanol was cheap enough for this to not be an issue. Indeed, Einstein had high hopes for this design, which he believed could bring reli-able refrigeration into the homes of even the poorest families.

The pair’s third design was by far their most technologically advanced, but also their most impracti-cal. This system was largely identical to a regular vapour-compression fridge except that instead of a mechanical compressor it used a series of powerful electromagnets to pump liquid metal through a circuit. The liquid metal was then used to compress regular refrigerant gases. At first the pair used liquid Mercury, but when this proved insufficiently conductive they switched to a liquid Sodium-Potassium alloy, which was not only highly corrosive but had a nasty habit of bursting into flames or even exploding on contact with air and water. Despite this rather significant hazard, however, as the system was completely sealed Einstein and Szilard were confident this would not be a serious problem.

Yet despite the ingenuity of these designs, in the end very little came of the Einstein-Szilard refrig-erators. In 1927 Swedish Electrolux bought the absorption refrigerator patents for around $750 (about $11K today), but this was mainly to retain control on their existing Munters/von Platen pa-tents; the Einstein-Szilard design was never incorporated into any commercial refrigerator. Further-more, while more efficient than other absorption cycles, the system was far less efficient than regu-lar vapour-compression fridges, and the discovery in 1930 of the non-toxic, non-flammable refrig-erant Freon nullified the safety advantages of the Einstein-Szilard design.

The ingenious water-powered refrigerator also turned out to be a dead end. Not only did Methanol turn out to be far more expensive than Einstein had anticipated, but water pressure in German apartments was notoriously weak and inconsistent. And while the electromagnetic pump was an impressive technological achievement, its sodium-potassium working fluid was far too dangerous for household use. It was also loud: in the words of Szilard’s friend, Hungarian Physicist Denis Ga-bor, the prototype “howled like a jackal.” Interestingly given Einstein’s more famous work in phys-ics, the Einstein-Szilard pump did eventually find a niche use in certain types of nuclear reactors, which use liquid sodium-potassium as a coolant.

While Einstein’s practical inventions never made as much of an impact as his theoretical work, 90 years since it was patented the Einstein-Szilard absorption refrigerator may be poised to make a comeback. An improved version called the Isobar is currently under development by UK inventor William Broadway for transporting vaccines in developing countries with limited electrical infra-structure – an application that would have delighted the famously humanitarian Einstein.

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Governor Nyesom Wike has threatened to sack all Local Government chairmen in Rivers over the activities of the all proscribed Indigenous Peoples Organisation of Biafra (IPOB) led by Nnamdi Kanu.

retwtr.com reports that Governor Wike charged the 23 LG chairmen, and youths in the state to fish members of the proscribed Indigenous Peoples Organisation of Biafra (IPOB) in the south-south state.

This online news platform understands that Governor Wike made this statement during a meeting with all the 23 Local Government chairmen, Community Development Committees, and youths leaders at the Government House, in Port Harcourt on Monday, October 26.

The Rivers State Governor warned that any council chairman that allows IPOB to hold processions and hoist its flag within their jurisdiction in Rivers State, risk sack.

Speaking further, Governor Wike described Rivers state as the most accommodating state for all Nigerians. To buttress this, he stated that there has never been any historical incident of different ethnic groups clashing in the State as has been witnessed in other parts of the country.

The governor and chieftain of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) said: “We can never be against any ethnic group. We can never do that .we have lived in harmony with the Ibos, the Hausas, and with Edo people. Everybody that comes to this state we have lived in harmony with. And so Nigerians must commend Rivers State as a place where you have never had problem between this group and that group ” he said.

“There is one terrorist group they call IPOB. I did not declare them terrorist group, the court declared them terrorist group. Not me. The federal government declared them a terrorist group. IPOB cannot use Rivers state to be place where they will be launching attack. If you allow that, your future, your children’s future is gone” he said.

“Go to Oyigbo and see what they have done. Destroyed the court. What did the court do? See the soldiers they killed and burnt them. See the policemen they killed and burnt them and then you said people will sit and fold their arms”.

“Ibos are living and doing their business here and they will continue to live and do their business here. We support that.

“But there are criminal elements that we must not allow, and the criminal elements are those who said they are IPOB members. Federal government has proscribed them, I have proscribed them” he said.

“We cannot allow it. All our vigilante groups must be encouraged. Everybody must be at alert. Work with the security agencies to make sure nothing call IPOB exist in this state. No procession. Not even a meeting anywhere. Identify where they hold meeting” he said

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Former Nigerian Minister of Finance, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, has gained more foothold in her bid to lead the World Trade Organisation (WTO) as she wins the endorsement of the European Union (EU).

The United States has however withdrawn its support for Okonjo-Iweal and backed South Korea’s trade chief, Yoo Myung-hee, her only contender in the final phase of the race.

According to Bloomberg, all 27 EU governments agreed on Monday in Brussels to support Okonjo-Iweala over her South Korean rival.

The Nigerian and Yoo Myung-hee had on October 7, 2020, advanced to the final round of selection to become the next director-general of the WTO.

The initial pool of eight candidates to replace Brazilian Roberto Azevedo, who stepped down as WTO director-general in August – a year ahead of schedule, had been narrowed down to five in September.

In October, the field was reduced from five to two, confirming that the 25-year-old Geneva-based trade body would be led by a woman for the first time.

The WTO is still consulting its member countries about the leadership bids by Okonjo-Iweala and Myung-hee. The organisation plans to announce a winner by November 7.

Last week, the European Parliament also endorsed the Nigerian’s bid.

It said it was convinced by Okonjo-Iweala’s vision for the future of multilateralism and advised WTO members to support her bid.

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